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Welding is a processing method that combines welding parts by heating or pressing, or both. According to the different state of metal in the welding process, welding methods can be divided into three categories: fusion welding, pressure welding and brazing, among which arc welding is the most widely used.
Welding is a processing method that combines welding parts by heating or pressing. According to the different welding process, welding methods can be divided into three categories: pressure welding, fusion welding and brazing. Among them, arc welding is the most widely used in fusion welding.
Fusion welding: A welding method in which the base metal at the place to be welded is melted, but no pressure is applied to form a weld.
Pressure welding: In the process of welding, pressure must be applied (heating or not heating) to complete the welding methods, including solid state welding, hot pressing welding, forging welding, diffusion welding, gas pressure welding and cold pressing welding.
Brazing: Using metal material with lower melting point than base metal as filler metal, the welding parts and filler metal are heated to a temperature higher than the melting point of base metal, but lower than the melting point of base metal. The liquid filler metal is used to wet base metal, fill joint gap, and diffuse with base metal to realize the method of connecting the welding parts. According to the different use of solder, it can be divided into hard brazing and soft brazing.
Welding processing has the following characteristics:
1. Compared with imperial joints, welding has the advantages of saving metal materials, high productivity, high joint strength, good sealing performance, easy to realize mechanization and automation.
2. Compared with casting, welding process is simple, production efficiency is high, material is saved, and cost is low, which is conducive to product renewal.
3. For large and complex structural parts, the composite process of casting-welding, Forging-welding and punching-welding can be used to realize the simplification of small assembling and large assembling, so as to overcome the deficiency of casting or forging equipment capacity, and to reduce costs, save materials and improve economic benefits.
4. It can connect different metals and make bimetallic structure easily. If cemented carbide blade and turning tool rod are welded together, a layer of wear-resistant material is surfaced on the worn workpiece surface to prolong its service life.
But there are also some shortcomings in welding, such as non-removable structure, inconvenient replacement and repair; welding structure is prone to stress and deformation, welding defects and so on. Welding technology is mainly used in the manufacture of metal structures, such as building structures, hulls, vehicles, aerospace, electronic and electrical products, boilers and pressure vessels.
1. Work clothes, shoes and gloves should be worn well before welding. Face masks must be used when welding to prevent arc damage to skin, face and eyes.
2. Before welding, check whether the welding machine is grounded, whether the insulation of cables and welding pliers is intact. The welding pliers should not be placed on the connected workbench or workpiece to prevent short-circuit burning down the welding machine.
3. The human body should not touch the two output terminals of the welding torch at the same time in order to prevent electric shock.
4. Fireworks are strictly prohibited near oxygen cylinders and acetylene occurrence bottles for gas welding.
5. Check the water level of temper preventer before gas welding. Close the acetylene valve immediately when tempering occurs. Check the cause and try to eliminate it.
6. Do not spray flame on human body and rubber pipe during gas welding.
7. The newly welded parts should not be touched directly by hand. When cleaning the welding slag, attention should be paid to the surrounding conditions, control the direction of the flying out of the welding slag, and prevent hot slag scalding or igniting articles.
8. Welding site should be well ventilated to prevent harmful gases from decomposition of pesticide coating from gathering around operators and affecting human health.
9. Do not use the naked eye to watch the arc directly. Before starting the arc, you should observe the surroundings so as not to hurt yourself and others.
10. After welding, the power supply should be cut off, and the residual fire may be eliminated before leaving.
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