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Historical Evolution of High Speed Boring Machine

2019-06-21

Although the handicraft industry of high-speed boring machine workshop is relatively backward, it has trained and brought up a lot of technicians. Although they are not specialists in machine-making, they can make vaarious kinds of handicraft tools, such as knives, saws, needles, drills, cones, grinding and shafts, sleeves, gears, lathe frames, etc. In fact, machines are assembled by these parts. It's made.


  1. Da Vinci Boring Machine, the earliest designer of high-speed boring machine, is known as the "mother of machinery". Talking about the boring machine, let's talk about Leonardo Da Vinci first. This legendary figure may have been the earliest designer of a boring machine for metal processing. The boring machine designed by him is powered by hydraulic or pedal. The boring tool rotates close to the workpiece and the workpiece is fixed on the mobiles table driven by the crane. In 1540, another painter drew a picture of "Pyrotechnics", and the same drawing of a boring machine was also made. At that time, the boring machine was specially used for finishing hollow castings.


2. The first boring machine for processing cannon barrels (Wilkinson, 1775). In the 17th century, due to the military needs, the artillery manufacturing industry developed rapidly. How to manufacture the barrel of artillery became a major problem that people urgently need to solve.


The first real boring machine in the world was invented by Wilkinson in 1775. Actually, Wilkinson's boring machine is a kind of drilling machine which can process artillery precisely. It is a hollow cylindrical boring rod with both ends mounted on bearings.


Wilkinson was born in the United States in 1728. When he was 20 years old, he moved to Staffordshire and built Bilston's first ironmaking furnace. Therefore, Wilkinson is known as "Master Blacksmith of Staffordshire". In 1775, Wilkinson, 47, worked hard at his father's factory to build a new machine that could drill artillery barrels with rare precision. Interestingly, after Wilkinson's death in 1808, he was buried in a cast iron coffin of his own design.


3. Boring machine has made an important contribution to Watt's steam engine. If there were no steam engines, there would not have been the first wave of industrial revolution. The development and application of steam engine itself, in addition to the necessary social opportunities, some technical prerequisites can not be ignored, because the manufacturing of steam engine parts is far from as easy as carpenters to cut wood, to make metal into some special shapes, and the processing accuracy requirements are high, without the corresponding technical equipment is impossible. For example, the cylinder and piston of the steam engine can be machined from the outside while measuring the size of the piston. But it is not easy to use the general processing method to meet the accuracy requirements of the inner diameter of the cylinder.


Smithton was the best mechanic in the eighteenth century. Smithton designed 43 water and windmill equipments. When making steam engines, Smithton's most troublesome job is to process cylinders. It is very difficult to process a large cylinder into a circle. To this end, Smithton made a special machine tool for cutting cylinder inner circle in Karen Iron Works. Driven by water truck, this boring machine is equipped with a cutter at the front end of its long shaft. The cutter can rotate in the cylinder, so that its inner circle can be machined. Because the tool is installed at the front of the long shaft, there will be deflection of the shaft and other problems, so it is very difficult to process a truly circular cylinder. For this reason, Smithton had to change the position of the cylinder several times for processing.


Wilkinson invented the boring machine in 1774 to solve this problem. This kind of boring machine uses the water wheel to rotate the material cylinder and push the tool with fixed alignment center. Because of the relative movement between the tool and the material, the material is bored out with high accuracy cylindrical holes. At that time, a 72-inch cylinder was made with a boring machine, with an error not exceeding the thickness of a sixpence coin. In modern technology, this is a big error, but under the conditions at that time, it is not easy to reach this level.


However, Wilkinson's invention did not apply for patent protection. People began to imitate it and install it. In 1802, Watt also talked about Wilkinson's invention in his book and copied it in his Sohott factory. Later, Watt used Wilkinson's magical machine to make cylinders and pistons of steam engines. Originally, for piston, it can be measured outside while cutting, but for cylinder is not so simple, it is necessary to use a boring machine. At that time, Watt used a water wheel to rotate the metal cylinder and push the center fixed tool forward to cut the inner part of the cylinder. As a result, the cylinder with a diameter of 75 inches is less than the thickness of a coin, which is very advanced in the current pair.


4. Boring machine of worktable lifting type was born (Hutton, 1885). In the following decades, people have made many improvements to Wilkinson's boring machine. In 1885, Hutton, England, made a table-lifting boring machine, which has become the prototype of modern boring machine.


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