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Mechanical Structure of NC Lathe

2019-06-21

From the analysis results of NC lathe and turning process, we can know that there are many similarities in mechanical structure between ordinary lathe and NC lathe. Both of them are composed of bed, spindle box, tool holder and feeding mechanism, hydraulic, lubrication, cooling and lighting protection, but each has its own characteristics. It is precisely because of their respective characteristics that the differences between them are formed.


1. The structure of the bed has a great influence on the layout of the lathe. The lathe bed is the main bearing part of the lathe and the main body of the lathe. The position of tool holder and guide rail greatly affects the adjustment of lathe and tool, the loading and unloading of workpiece, the convenience of lathe operation, and the processing accuracy of lathe. Considering chip removal and seismic resistance, inclined guide rail should be adopted. The optimum layout of NC horizontal lathe is inclined bed (inclined guide rail) smooth plate type.


2. The main motion requirements of NC lathe are: the spindle speed can be continuously adjusted in a certain range; the spindle has enough driving power; the spindle components have high rotary accuracy and stable operation; and the spindle components have enough rigidity and seismic resistance.


3. The transmission of the feed system requires accurate and no clearance, so the clearance should be eliminated in every link of the feed chain, such as the connection between servo motor and screw rod, the cooperation between screw and nut, and the bearings supporting both ends of screw rod. If the gap still exists after adjustment, it can be compensated by NC system, but the gap should not exceed 0.05 mm. Because the transmission clearance is too large, it has a great influence on the machining accuracy, especially when cutting arcs and cones in mirror machining (symmetrical cutting) mode, the transmission clearance has a greater impact on the accuracy.


4. The tailstock of CNC lathe is a relatively simple component. The locking of the tailstock is controlled manually. When the lathe is adjusted, the tailstock sleeve can be manually controlled to move.


5. In economical NC lathe, considering the cost factor, the manual three-jaw self-centering chuck is generally used as the ordinary lathe; in standard NC lathe, the self-centering hydraulic chuck or pneumatic chuck is generally used.


With the rapid development of China's economy, labor costs are getting higher and higher, high and new technologies are widely used, and CNC machining centers are also accepted by more and more manufacturers. However, due to the influence of many factors, a considerable part of the users of machining centers in our country have low application level, low machine tool start-up rate and utilization rate, which directly affect the economic benefits of the users of machining centers. High. The common problems are as follows:


1. Insufficient technical preparation


Mainly manifested in the inadequate preparation of cutting tools, NC program is not well programmed, machine tool fixtures, measuring tools are not matched, etc. Because the machining center stops waiting for the completion of the above work, it directly affects the actual operation time.


2. Technical level is not high


It includes two aspects: First, the technical level of NC programmers is not high. The programming time is long, the program is not concise and unreasonable, resulting in a long standby time and debugging program of the processing center, and even many functions of the processing center can not be fully developed. Second, the operator's technical quality of the processing center is not high. Mainly manifested in the slow understanding of CNC program, lack of knowledge of machining technology, poor comprehensive judgment and processing ability of various situations in machine tool processing, small common faults can not be eliminated, etc., making the non-processing operation and adjustment time of machine tool too long.


3. Poor management


Because of the short application time of machining centers in some enterprises, many enterprises lack the management experience of processing centers. Poor planning, poor scheduling and poor logistics often occur in production, which makes machine tool standby time too long. In addition, a considerable number of users believe that the machining center is a precision equipment, the general workpiece processing and rough processing processes are not arranged in the processing center, artificially limited to a very small range of processing objects, resulting in inadequate tasks. Others arrange workpieces that are not suitable for their processing in the processing center or some workpieces with poor quality of blanks, which leads to frequent quality accidents in processing and affects the turning rate of machine tools.


4. improper selection


Some enterprises can not make full use of the processing center because of the improper selection of its type and specifications, resulting in long-term idleness.


5. Low reliability


The reliability of machining centers used by some enterprises is not high, which leads to frequent faults, especially the failure of automatic tool changing system and CNC system.


6. Weak maintenance


At present, the maintenance force of most domestic processing centers is still very weak. Once the machine tool breaks down, it can not be repaired quickly, and some even rely on the maintenance personnel of the manufacturer. In this way, it is bound to cause a long period of shutdown of the processing center.


7. Poor working environment


If the voltage fluctuation of the power grid is too large, sudden power failure, and the grounding wire of the machine tool is not handled properly, the components of the CNC system can be damaged. In addition, too much dust, too high humidity and too high room temperature are directly related to the frequent failure of machine tools.


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